Whether a fragment or a complete masterpiece: a special jewel of Carolingian book art

Sacramentary of Metz

2nd half of the 9th century

Sacramentary of Metz

Sacramentary of Metz

— 2nd half of the 9th century

  1. A true jewel of Carolingian illumination with canon pages that surpass all others

  2. It is debated whether this masterpiece is a fragment or an unfinished work

  3. The goal of deploying great pomp, wealth, and plenteousness, is clearly visible

Das Sakramentar von Metz

Sacramentary of Metz

Christ in Majesty

Meaning “almond” in Italian, a mandorla is an almond-shaped frame in which Christ and/or the Virgin Mary are presented, usually surrounded by the Evangelist Symbols or other icons. This particularly colorful and richly gilded miniature shows Christ flanked by two seraphim – angels belonging to the highest of the angelic choirs and described in Isaiah 6 as surrounding God’s throne continuously singing “holy, holy, holy”. A man holding a fish and woman suckling two babes gaze up at this glory.

Sacramentary of Metz

Alternative Titles:
  • Sacramentaire de Metz
  • Sakramentar von Metz
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
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  1. Short Description
  2. Codicology

Short Description

The Carolingian period was a period of great ambitions, specifically the ambition of Charlemagne and his descendants to build an empire that would be a worthy successor to the Romans. The Sacramentary of Metz is considered to be a true jewel of Carolingian illumination with canon pages in particular that surpass all others. It is debated whether the manuscript that has survived to today is a fragment of a complete text, or only the beginning of a work which has never been completed. Possibly made for Charles the Bald in the 9th century, both the script and illustration are excellent examples of Carolingian manuscript production and exhibit influences from the Tours school of illumination.

Sacramentary of Metz

The Sacramentary of Metz constitutes a bibliophile jewel which, due to its rich ornamental and miniature decoration, surpasses everything which has come down to us in the canon pages of other medieval sacramentaries. Although the codex is a complete sacramentary which integrates the whole ecclesiastical year, it nonetheless constitutes a fragment, even while still containing the most important portion of the sacramentary (the Canon Missale with the Preface). It has also been suggested that this is only the beginning of a work which has never been completed. Our manuscript has thus always been known and become famous as a sacramentary fragment, its luxury making it one of the most precious testimonies to late Carolingian illumination. It was made in the second half of the 9th century for a king, probably for Charles the Bald, king of an area then called Francia Occidentalis. Both the script, which is mainly executed in golden letters, and the decoration with ornament and miniatures, are of great artistic value and marvelously enhance the contents of the sacred text. The imagery developed in Reims and Metz from late classical vocabulary comes alive in the manuscript which is also influenced by the magnificent Tours school. The existing elements are grouped to a new harmony, and pictorial forms are created which were to influence medieval art for many centuries.

The Unique Decorative Apparatus

Although the manuscript only comprises a few pages (10 folios), it contains magnificent depictions showing great movement and vivacity. At the beginning of the manuscript stands the portrait of the sovereign, depicting the coronation of Charles the Bald by the hand of God. This miniature presents some interesting iconographic details, such as the haloes around the heads of the king and the two bishops, which are interpreted as attributes to those involved in sacramental doings. In addition, an old motif from late classical triumphal art, the coronation of the emperor by the hand of God, attracts the viewer’s attention, as it is unparalleled in the Carolingian period. It constitutes the most unambiguous expression of the conceited idea that royalty is immediately bestowed by God.

Imaginative Ornamental Art

Besides a total of seven sumptuous full-page miniatures, the ornamental decoration is of great importance. It underlines the theological contents and excels in a rich formal vocabulary, great inventiveness and determination, both in detail and in the overall conception of the work. Acanthus leaves, colored pearl bands, frames of precious stones, blossom rosettes, and palmettes imaginatively wind around the holy text. The overall goal of deploying great pomp and presenting wealth and plenteousness, is clearly visible throughout the book.

A Masterpiece of Calligraphy

The graphical presentation of the manuscript is an excellent example of the decorative use and combination of different scripts in a calligraphic masterpiece. The text is predominantly written in gold and on some pages, lines alternate in gold, green and red. The letters are frequently decorated with ornament and some lines and letters are highlighted by purple backgrounds. Besides a fine minuscule, all kinds of decorative scripts are used: capitalis quadrata, capitalis rustica, as well as sumptuous uncials for the main portion of the text.

A King’s Sacramentary

Sacred books used in coronation ceremonies as well as for other celebrations and ritual feasts, were intended to invoke God’s blessing for the sovereign and the whole dynasty. This is probably the context in which the Sacramentary of Metz should be placed. The reason why it remained unfinished might have been the urgent need for a sumptuous sacramentary at the occasion of the coronation of Charles the Bald, as well as the fact that for lack of a complete manuscript, one had to do with the precious fragment, which was just started at the time and contained only the first and foremost portion of the Sacramentary. Based on the rich decorative apparatus, it is possible to state that the Sacramentary goes back to the time of Charles the Bald and is considered today to be the work of a school active at his court.

Codicology

Alternative Titles
Sacramentaire de Metz
Sakramentar von Metz
Size / Format
20 pages / 27.0 x 21.0 cm
Date
2nd half of the 9th century
Language
Illustrations
7 full-page miniatures, 12 pages with ornamental frames and with splendid ornamental writing
Artist / School
Das Sakramentar von Metz

Sacramentary of Metz

Crucifixion – Te Igitur

This lavish Crucifixion scene, in which the cross forms the opening “T” of the Eucharistic prayer Te igitur, is evidence that this fragment contains arguably the richest and finest Carolingian illumination. The miniature is a kaleidoscope of interlace patterns, gems, pearls, palmettes, and acanthus leaves. Aside from the lavish use of gold leaf, the scene employs radiant shades of red, green, and blue.

Although bleeding from his wounds, Christ is shown triumphant over death with his eyes wide open and appears to stand rather than hang from the cross. Gold dots represent the nails in his feet, hands, and curiously, his nipples and bellybutton. Christ’s musculature is surprisingly realistic for the period and contrasts with his solemn appearance.

1 available facsimile edition(s) of „Sacramentary of Metz“

Das Sakramentar von Metz
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
Sacramentary of Metz – Ms. lat. 1141 – Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France)
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Das Sakramentar von Metz

1 volume: Exact reproduction of the original document (extent, color and size)
Publisher
Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt (ADEVA) – Graz, 1972
Binding
Parchment
Commentary
1 volume (34 pages) by F. Mütherich
Language: German

The scholarly commentary which accompanies the manuscript was written by Florentine Mütherich and provides an introduction to the Sacramentary fragment. It places the manuscript in its historic context and particularly explains and acknowledges its place in the history of art.
More Information
All folios are cut according to the original.
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