Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex

Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex – Edilan – Catedral, Num. Inv. 7 (11) – Museu Diocesà (Gerona, Spain)

Scriptorium of the Monastery of San Salvador de Tábara (Spain) — 975

Already very special because the names of the patrons, illuminators, and scribes are known: one of the most beautiful and probably best documented Beatus manuscripts in the world

  1. Maybe the most attractive and best documented of the Apocalypse commentaries of Beatus de Liébana

  2. The manuscript's patron, illuminators, scribe, date, and place of origin are all documented

  3. 124 high-quality miniatures in subdued colors and costly gold and silver adornments

Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex

Catedral, Num. Inv. 7 (11) Museu Diocesà (Gerona, Spain)
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  1. Description
  2. Detail Picture
  3. Single Page
  4. Facsimile Editions (2)
Description
Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex

The Girona Codex from the series of Beatus-manuscripts is the most attractively decorated and best documented work of the apocalypse manuscripts by Beatus de Liébana, giving us precious insights into the origins of the codex and of contemporary manuscript production in general. Created ca. 975 by and for members of the Spanish clergy, it contains 124 high-quality miniatures in subdued colors and costly adornments of gold and silver, including a double-page miniature of heaven in six concentric circles. Named after its repository in the treasury of Girona Cathedral, this beautifully illuminated manuscript is one of the most important and informative works of the Beatus tradition.

Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex

Beatus de Liébana was a monk and theologian who belonged to the Monastery of Santo Toribio de Liébana in modern Spain. The monk is known above all else for this main work, a commentary on the biblical Apocalypse in twelve books. The Girona Codex is one of these books. It is an especially interesting and striking fragment of the twelve-part series of books. The manuscript arose in the second half of the 10th century and contains 124 miniatures richly embellished with gold and silver in all.

A Successful Collaboration

Alongside Beatus, the author of the Girona Codex, other involved person were also named. In doing so, the master of the work easily identified something that was rarely the case with Romanesque codices. Even the date of its origin was noted. The document originated ca. 975 at the behest of Abbot Dominicus. As illuminators, the nun En and the monk Emterius were named. The meticulous script of the text was completed by the scribe Senior. The gifted collective produced one of the most elegant and artful codices from the series of Beatus-Apocalypses.

The Finest Illumination

The valuable manuscript begins with a series of miniatures, which are to be found in no other Beatus-codex. A two-page depiction of heaven in six concentric circles opens the work. Hereupon follows a cycle of six full-page miniatures about the life of Christ, in which, among others, scenes of the crucifixion and descent into hell are depicted. The full-page, framed miniatures show astonishingly diverse and fantastical representations. The colors of the pictures appear subdued and unagitated. Numerous miniatures are adorned with gold and silver. The valuable original edition of the manuscript is housed today in the Girona Cathedral in Spain.

Codicology

Alternative Titles
Girona Beatus
Beatus of Gerona
Beato de Liébana, códice del Monasterio de San Salvador de Tábara, Zamora
Beatus von Girona
Beato di Girona
Béatus de Gérone
Size / Format
568 pages / 40.0 × 26.0 cm
Origin
Spain
Date
975
Style
Language
Script
Visigothic minuscule
Illustrations
124 illuminations decorated with gold and silver
Patron
Abbot Dominicus
Artist / School

Available facsimile editions:
Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex – Edilan – Catedral, Num. Inv. 7 (11) – Museu Diocesà (Gerona, Spain)
Edilan – Madrid, 1975

Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex – M. Moleiro Editor – Catedral, Num. Inv. 7 (11) – Museu Diocesà (Gerona, Spain)
M. Moleiro Editor – Barcelona, 2003
Limited Edition: 987 copies
Detail Picture

Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex

The Seven Bowls

“And out of the temple came the seven angels having the seven plagues, clothed in pure bright linen, and having their chests girded with golden bands. Then one of the four living creatures gave to the seven angels seven golden bowls full of the wrath of God who lives forever and ever.” (Rev. 15:6-7). Depicted here holding golden U-shaped objects representing bowls, seven barefooted angels in colorful robes prepare to unleash natural disasters upon the earth including turning the oceans to blood.

Beato de Gerona
Single Page

Beatus of Liébana - Girona Codex

The Metaphor of the Palm Tree

Begun while in Constantinople and completed in 595, the Moralia in lob is an extensive commentary on the Book of Job with many allegorical elements by Saint Gregory the Great. Gregory compares a saint’s life to a palm tree: the base is rough while the top is full of leafy branches and fruit just as the righteous path is difficult but leads to the rewards of Paradise.

The naked man climbing the tree with a pruning knife represents those seeking salvation while the clothed man represents religion, which supports the faithful in their ascensions to Glory. They can also be interpreted as representing the body and the soul, respectively. The palm tree thus represents Christ and his cross, which make it possible to harvest the fruit of salvation.

Beato de Gerona
Facsimile Editions

#1 Beato de Gerona

Edilan – Madrid, 1975

Publisher: Edilan – Madrid, 1975
Binding: Leather
Commentary: 1 volume by Henry A. Sanders, Jaume Marqués de Casanovas, José Camón Aznar and Tomás Marín Martínez
Language: Spanish
1 volume: Exact reproduction of the original document (extent, color and size) Reproduction of the entire original document as detailed as possible (scope, format, colors). The binding may not correspond to the original or current document binding.
Price Category: €€€ (3,000€ - 7,000€)
Edition available
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#2 Beato de Liébana, códice del Monasterio de San Salvador de Tábara, Zamora

M. Moleiro Editor – Barcelona, 2003

Publisher: M. Moleiro Editor – Barcelona, 2003
Limited Edition: 987 copies
Binding: Tanned leather
Commentary: 1 volume (334 pages) by Gabriel Roura i Güibas and Carlos Miranda García-Tejedor
Languages: English, Spanish
1 volume: Exact reproduction of the original document (extent, color and size) Reproduction of the entire original document as detailed as possible (scope, format, colors). The binding may not correspond to the original or current document binding.
Regular price without login (like new)5,690 
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