With excerpts from the words of Isidore de Seville (ca. 560–636): a Beatus manuscript in Mozarabic and Romanesque style

Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex

Propably Castile (Mozarabic Part) and San Millán de la Cogolla (Romanesque part) (Spain) — First part: Late 10th or early 11th century (Mozarabic); Second part: second half of the 11th century (Romanesque)

Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex

Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex

Propably Castile (Mozarabic Part) and San Millán de la Cogolla (Romanesque part) (Spain) — First part: Late 10th or early 11th century (Mozarabic); Second part: second half of the 11th century (Romanesque)

  1. This unique Beatus manuscript was begun in the 10th century and completed over a century later

  2. Consequently, the first part is in the Mozarabic style and the second is distinctly Romanesque

  3. The manuscript is supplemented with excerpts from the Etymology of Isidore de Seville (ca. 560–636)

Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex

Alternative Titles:
  • Beatus von Liébana - Codex San Millán
  • San Millan Beatus
  • Beato de San Millán de la Cogolla
  • Beato de San Millán
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
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  1. Short Description
  2. Codicology

Short Description

Saint Beatus of Liébana (c. 730 – c. 800) wrote an authoritative commentary on the Book of Revelation, which was divided into 12 books and originates from ca. 776. It is one of the most influential texts of medieval theology, and inspired the creation of dozens of precious manuscripts, most from Northern Spain. The San Millán Codex represents one of the most complete surviving copies of the famous commentary. It is adorned with 49 full-page miniatures, which were produced in two phases during the 10th and 11th centuries and are fine specimens of the Mozarabic and Romanesque styles. The manuscript is named after the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla in La Rioja, where it was completed.

Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex

This is a fascinating specimen from the grand tradition of so-called Beatus manuscripts. Saint Beatus of Liébana (c. 730 – c. 800) wrote an authoritative commentary on the Book of Revelation, which was divided into 12 books. It originates from a time when most of the Iberian Peninsula had been overrun by the Moors. Only the Kingdom of Asturias, protected by the Cantabrian Mountains, stood against the Muslim invasion. It was in this precarious situation that Beatus wrote his commentary, and in which its meaning changed. The beast, once representing the Roman Empire, was now replaced by the Muslim Caliphate, and Babylon was no longer Rome, but Córdoba instead. That being said, most of his commentary is actually critical of other Christians, who put their own interests before the will of God, and Muslims are only mentioned in passing. The San Millán Codex also includes the prologue of the Apocalypse that was written by Saint Jerome (347–420), his commentary on the Book of Daniel, and extracts of the Etymologiae by Saint Isidore of Seville (ca. 560–636). 49 full-page miniatures adorn the extensive text, which comprises more than 560 pages. This manuscript represents one of the most complete surviving copies of the famous commentary.

Who Was Beatus?

Beatus of Liébana was a monk, theologian, and member of the Monastery of Santo Toribio de Liébana in Spain. The monk is famous above all for his magnum opus, a commentary on the biblical Apocalypse in twelve books. It originates from ca. 776 and are known today as the Beatus-Series. These twelve books were adapted into countless manuscripts, many of which survive to this day. They are regarded as some of the finest examples of Mozarabic illumination, and were influenced by Moorish art, despite the antagonistic relationship between the two peoples. The majority of Beatus manuscripts originate from between the 10th and 11th centuries in northern Spain. The San Millán Codex was produced during the heyday of Beatus manuscript production.

Mozarabic Art meets the Romanesque

The manuscript at hand was produced in two phases, the first originated at the end of the 10th century in the province of León, and contains the majority of the text and most of the miniatures. These are rendered in the Mozarabic style. The second part originated from the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla in La Rioja, after which it is named, probably at the end of the 11th century. One new miniature was added, the preexisting miniatures received additional color, and this second phase shows influences of the Romanesque style. Thus, the manuscript is of great interest to theologians and art historians alike.

Codicology

Alternative Titles
Beatus von Liébana - Codex San Millán
San Millan Beatus
Beato de San Millán de la Cogolla
Beato de San Millán
Size / Format
564 pages / 35.5 × 24.0 cm
Date
First part: Late 10th or early 11th century (Mozarabic); Second part: second half of the 11th century (Romanesque)
Style
Language
Script
Visigothic
Illustrations
49 large and full-page miniatures
Content
Commentary on the Book of Revelation by Beatus of Liébana
Artist / School

2 available facsimile edition(s) of „Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex“

Beato de San Millán
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
Beatus of Liébana - San Millán Codex – Emil: 33 – Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, Spain)
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Beato de San Millán

1 volume: Exact reproduction of the original document (extent, color and size)
Publisher
Testimonio Compañía Editorial – Madrid, 2002
Limited Edition
980 copies
Binding
Motifs from the work have been printed into the maroon goatskin binding on both the front and back covers as well as reproduced in the bronze clasps
Commentary
1 volume (134 pages) by Manuel C. Diaz & Diaz and John Williams
Language: Spanish
More Information
Reproduction of the entire original document as detailed as possible (scope, format, colors). The binding may not correspond to the original or current document binding.
Price Category: €€€ (3,000€ - 7,000€)
Edition available
Price: Login here!
El Beato de San Millán de la Cogolla
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El Beato de San Millán de la Cogolla

1 volume: Exact reproduction of the original document (extent, color and size)
Publisher
Edilan – Madrid, 1999
Commentary
1 volume by Soledad De Silva y Verástegui
Language: Spanish
More Information
Reproduction of the entire original document as detailed as possible (scope, format, colors). The binding may not correspond to the original or current document binding.
Price Category: €€€ (3,000€ - 7,000€)
Edition available
Price: Login here!
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