Golden Bull

Golden Bull Facsimile Edition

Prague (Czech Republic) — 1400

Created at the famous court of King Wenceslas IV in Prague: the "Constitution" of the Middle Ages, magnificently illuminated and richly decorated with gold

  1. The rules for the election of the German Emperor, in force until the year 1806

  2. Magnificent illuminated Codex, commissioned by the German King Wenceslas IV (1361–1419)

  3. Counted among the most important codices in German history and one of the finest in Bohemian illumination

Golden Bull

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  1. Description
  2. Detail Picture
  3. Single Page
  4. Facsimile Editions (1)
Golden Bull

This magnificent illuminated manuscript was wrapped up in the political turmoil ca. 1400 and was intended as a form of medieval propaganda by King Wenceslas of Bohemia. The Vienna Codex 338 is a copy of the Golden Bull and is of prime historical and political significance, not to mention its masterful calligraphy and adornment. The Golden Bull, promulgated in 1365 by Emperor Charles IV with the consent of two diets in Nuremberg and Metz, represented the main constitutional law of the German Empire and, as a basic constitutional law, remained in force for nearly half a millennium, up until 1806. This edition is noteworthy for its incredible initials in particular, which are arguably the finest in medieval illumination and even take the form of figural miniatures at two important places in the text.

The Golden Bull

The Vienna Codex 338 is a copy of the Golden Bull made in 1400 with illumination of superior quality. It is therefore considered to be the most beautiful version of all manuscripts of this text that have survived to this day. From an artistic point of view, the luxurious manuscript belongs to the tradition of Bohemian book painting. Its 48 miniatures and countless colored initials enchant the beholder even today. The uniformity of the written script as well as the text layout contribute to the outstanding beauty of the manuscript and, together with the miniatures and initials, form a harmonious ensemble. The manuscript is a document of prime importance also on a political and historical level, due to the finishing touch stating that it was made in the year 1400 on the initiative of the Roman and Bohemian King Wenceslas. The ceremonial copy was meant to legitimate Wenceslas’ claim to the office of King of the Romans which had just been withdrawn from him, and also the most eminent document in the negotiations with the Pope regarding the coronation of the German Emperor in Rome.

The Finest Version of the Oldest German Constitution

The particular charm of the manuscript resides in its 48 sumptuous miniatures. They are considered to be the work of a single anonymous master known as ”Master of the Golden Bull”. The painted scenes all refer to the election of the emperor and the exercise of rights. The background of the miniatures is either applied with gold leaf or in color, and damascened with shell gold. The interlace surrounding the miniatures comprises acanthus leaves in blue, rose, green and grey. Here and there drop-shaped buds in gold leaf are playfully added to the branching foliage. The scenes of the Golden Bull are characterized by a festive atmosphere. An important feature is the painter’s predilection for exuberant plies and rounded forms, for strong and curly hair and strongly projecting noses. The beginnings of chapters and some paragraphs are marked by colored initials some of which are ornate with gold and elaborate interlace. A highlight of the art of initial painting, as practiced by specialized artists, is achieved with the integration of figural depictions. The initial in its most noteworthy artistic form thus becomes a figural miniature. This form of historiated initial occurs twice in the manuscript, both times to mark important passages in the text.

A Masterpiece of Calligraphy

The script of the codex also deserves great attention. It is a beautiful Gothic calligraphy (textualis formata or textura) written by an anonymous scribe. The chapter beginnings are all highlighted with red ink, while some at the beginning of the manuscript are outlined in golden letters in a highly representative manner.

A Prominent Source of History

The Golden Bull, promulgated in 1365 by Emperor Charles IV with the consent of two diets in Nuremberg and Metz, represented the main constitutional law of the German Empire and, as a basic constitutional law, remained in force for nearly half a millennium, up until 1806. Its main purpose was to regulate the election of the German Emperor. King Wenceslas IV, son of Emperor Charles IV, commissioned a copy in 1400 for political reasons, which was then produced in his famous court workshop. The luxurious Latin manuscript contains not only the Golden Bull after which it is named (aurea bulla imperialium constitucionum) but also a treatise on the appropriate time for an Italian campaign (tractatus de habilitate temporis ad processum versus Italiam), a letter on King Wenceslas, the successor of Charles IV, (epistola de successore), and a directory of cities and castles in Tuscia (civitates et castra). It is the only legal work among the seven known codices which have been confirmed as originating from the huge library formerly belonging to Wenceslas, including the famous Wenceslas Bible, the oldest German deluxe Bible manuscript we know of.


Alternative Titles
Goldene Bulle
Goldene Bulle des Königs Wenzel
Size / Format
160 pages / 42.0 × 30.0 cm
Gothic Textura
One large decorative page with richly ornamented margins, 50 miniatures in the text and numerous colorful initials with gold leaf
The main constitutional law of the German Empire
Wenceslas IV (1361–1419), King of Bohemia and King of Germany
Artist / School

Available facsimile editions:
Golden Bull – Cod. Vindob. 338 – Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (Vienna, Austria) Facsimile Edition
Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt (ADEVA) – Graz, 1977
Limited Edition: 500 copies
Detail Picture

Golden Bull

A Royal Feast

Presented before a patterned red background that is shimmering with gold leaf, we see two kings with elaborate crowns and robes trimmed with ermine being served a meal. The young, clean-shaven monarch on the left looks on graciously as his meat is being cut on a golden plate. An older bearded king on the right gestures toward a servant in green, who brings a covered dish, which is also gold. The servants are all depicted as young men with flowing blonde locks.

Die Goldene Bulle
Single Page

Golden Bull

Tax Collection

In a document concerned with the laws of the Holy Roman Empire, tax collection is naturally an important issue. Here we see the Duke of Saxony mounted on horseback in his role as imperial marshal, identifiable by his elector’s hat and staff. The men are paying their taxes “in kind”, specifically with oats, which are being poured into a bag.

One is immediately struck by the incredible color palette of the scene: radiant orange and green contrast with dark grays and blues. The characters have thick, curly hair and wear tights of alternating colors. The radiant background nearly outshines the scene itself and is distinguished by its gold leaf filigree pattern. Even the minimalistic frame stands out due to the pseudo-kelly-green color chosen for it.

Die Goldene Bulle
Facsimile Editions

#1 Die Goldene Bulle

Limited Edition: 500 copies
Binding: Embossed leather, copy of the original binding. Facsimile and commentary in a half leather slipcase.
Commentary: 1 volume by Armin Wolf
Language: German

The comprehensive scholarly commentary by Armin Wolf offers an extensive history of the manuscript as well as a detailed description, comments and interpretations of the artistic decoration from an art historian’s point of view. It further explains the significance of the manuscript, provides a comprehensive bibliography, and a collection of pictures selected according to aspects of legal history which offer comparative material on the legal status of the Roman German Emperor and his electors. It constitutes an important contribution to legal archaeology and is much acclaimed by specialists in this domain.
1 volume: Exact reproduction of the original document (extent, color and size) Reproduction of the entire original document as detailed as possible (scope, format, colors). The binding may not correspond to the original or current document binding. All folios are cut according to the original.
Price Category: €€ (1,000€ - 3,000€)
Edition available
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